All The Secret Stuff That Happens When You Visit Google(NASDAQ:GOOG).Com #Your_BrowserFebruary 11, 2019
It looks like you’re trying to find Google… (Image: Screenshot)The next step is to parse what you’ve typed into the address bar—is it a URL?
If the browser can spot a valid protocol (like HTTP) or domain name (like Google.com) it can open the page, otherwise it passes the query on to your default search engine, often with a code that indicates the referring browser.
In this case we’re headed to a website, so the browser then checks its HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) list, a preloaded table of sites that would prefer to connect via the more secure HTTPS protocol .
Next, the browser performs a DNS lookup , which is like looking up someone’s home address—though in this case we’re trying to find where a website lives on the internet.
(Image: Screenshot)Once the DNS lookup occurs there’s another layer of checking and counter-checking, known as an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) process.
These involve establishing a common language so the displayed website actually makes sense, and going through some ID checks for the sake of security.
Once everyone’s on good terms, the actual data transfer can start—browsers can make all kinds of requests to sites and vice versa, but here we just want the HTML and other code that makes up the Google.com home page.
It’s the browser’s rendering engine that does the bulk of this work, and the different browser developers have all deployed their own engines (which is why the layout of webpages sometimes varies between browsers): Chrome uses Blink , which is based on the WebKit engine that Safari uses, while Firefox has Gecko .
Unless your browser, your internet connection, or the Google homepage is broken, you’re ready to start searching.
All of that calculating and parsing and data transferring, and you’ve not even started searching yet—how your queries are interpreted and organized by Google is a whole other story.